Б. Результат действия мутагенов

Азотистая кислота вызывает точковые мутации (1). Например, C превращается в U, который в следующем цикле репликации образует пару с A (вместо G), после чего изменение принимает необратимый характер. Мутации типа вставки или выпадения некоторого числа нуклеотидов, не кратного трём, ведут к ошибочной трансляции всей ДНК, поскольку они сдвигают рамку считывания (2). При трансляции изменённая мРНК будет интерпретироваться рибосомами по-другому, приводя к совершенно иной аминокислотной последовательности, что показано на простом примере (2).


Молекулярная генетика / Мутация и репарация

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